Aristotle Notes


Punzo-Goldman Outline

Notes on Punzo & Goldman

 Kant Notes 

Note’s on Mill’s Utilitarianism

Cultural Relativism slides

Kopelman Notes

Arguments (pdf)

Argumentation Lecture Notes

  1. Argument: A set of reasons given in support of a claim.
  2. Conclusion: The claim intended to be supported by the argument is called the conclusion of the argument.
  3. Premises: The claims given as reasons for thinking the conclusion of the argument is true are called the premises of the argument.


  • Start with general claims and conclude with specific ones.
  • Derive conclusions based on an analysis of given information or definition (not experience)
  1. Validity: An argument is valid if the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises. If the premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true.
  2. Soundness: An argument is sound if it is valid and all of its premises are true.


  • Start with specific claims and conclude with general ones.
    • OR
  • Predict the future based on past experience.
  1. Strong
  2. Weak

Persuasive arguments: start with premises commonly believed to be true.